Org-protocol can be used to send data from a browser to Emacs. For example, you can use a bookmarklet to send the current URL, title and selection from the browser into Emacs org-mode capture.

On a Windows system I found that this works fine with Emacs UTF-8 settings when using Chrome and IE, but the data sent from Firefox was not UTF-8 (or utf-16-le) encoded. To handle this I used a special capture template for Firefox:

(setq org-capture-templates
 '(
   ("f" "Capture bookmark from firefox" entry (file+datetree "~/org/notes.org") 
    "* %?\n:PROPERTIES:\n:CODING: cp1252\n:END:\n%i\n  %a" :empty-lines 1)
   )
 )

A function which runs after content is captured checks for the "CODING" property, if it is there it recodes the buffer and removes the property:

;; If the org property value of CODING is not nil, mark the (capture) buffer it and use recode-region to recode it to UTF-8.

(defalias 'jmn/recode-buffer-from-cp1252-to-utf-8
  #'(lambda nil "Recodes a buffer from cp1252 to utf-8 encoding"
      (message "recoding buffer!")
      (interactive)
      (mark-whole-buffer)
      (recode-region (region-beginning) (region-end) 'cp1252 'utf-8)))

(add-hook 'org-capture-prepare-finalize-hook
          '(lambda nil
             (if(cdr(assoc "CODING"(org-entry-properties nil 'standard)))
                 (progn
                   (org-delete-property "CODING")
                   (jmn/recode-buffer-from-cp1252-to-utf-8)))))

Now text can be selected in the browser and sent to emacs org-mode capture using this bookmarklet code:

javascript:location.href='org-protocol://capture://f/'+encodeURIComponent(location.href)+'/'+encodeURIComponent(document.title)+'/'+encodeURIComponent(window.getSelection())

When the capture is finalized, the data will be recoded to utf-8.